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This new semester has presented me with new ideas of how web television works. After my successful research presentation at BEA in April, my research has been guided towards the pedagogical sense of web television. Not just in how to teach web television production, but also how to make our students media literate about television’s co-existence on the Internet. The week that just passed offered events that have opened great teaching examples.

I always predictably start the story the same way: several years ago, a group of very talented and creative guys made a web tv show called We Need Girlfriends. After the completion of their series, CBS and Sony were curious as to how the show would do on traditional television. Without going into to many repeat details, the guys are still rewriting the pilot for CBS. Anyway, in the time since, thousands of web television shows have been produced by hundreds of creators ranging from small independent production companies to major corporations. Shows like The Guild and Dorm Life encouraged the small creator to create independent content and web channels like Crackle showed how big corporations like Sony were beginning to understand the frontier. Interesting hybrid shows and one-off specials like Dr. Horrible’s Sing-a-Long Blog became fun projects for creatives during times of industry unrest (in Dr. Horrible’s case, it was the writer’s strike). YouTube and started offering easy advertising plans to their creators for money to be made.

But what about companies that are still trying to grasp the new territory of web television? What of them? Some television channels and their content are helplessly attached to the traditional medium and are exclusive to television only. This week showed an interesting development of monetizing content in an online world. It all started at 9:50pm on Sunday night.

Sunday night is when Kanye West grabbed the mic from Taylor Swift at the VMAs. That’s MTV’s Video Music Awards, the show that no one has talked about in years was the most talked about show all week. A show helplessly attached to the television broadcast. Between Kanye’s rudeness, Lady Gaga’s wierdness, Pink’s trapezeness, there was much to talk about, but only Kanye’s act became viral. Within one hour of Kanye’s video-bomb of Taylor Swift’s award, there was nearly 300,000 tweets and thousands Facebook status updates about it. At 10:08pm, had a copy of the clip online and at 10:10, so did YouTube and AOL. But who had the clips the next day? Only MTV. Exclusively.

One of my students in my Intro to New Media course asked me who regulates the internet if the government doesn’t. I asked it back to the class and they were able to parse through the information and realize that corporations had control over the content online. The bigger the corporation, the more control. When it comes to YouTube (Google owned) and MTV (Viacom owned) you’re looking at a pretty big control system.

I push my students to ask questions about the content they are watching and reading. I encourage them to be skeptics with a dash of cynicism in hopes they will become media literate by the end of the semester. I began the questioning of this event with a question on how shows generate revenue. The class discussed three types of television programs encouraging a type of modern revenue system. The first is the traditional type of television show that intends on keeping the show on traditional broadcast and cablecast outlets; how do they make money? The answer easily found was product placement and shows like The Apprentice and Extreme Makeover: Home Edition are basically 44 minute entertainment commercials (entermercials?). Also, shows like 30 Rock and the dearly missed Arrested Development [take note of where AD lives now] would insert product placement in a very smart way to make the show even more enjoyable.

Then there are shows that encourage viewers to explore online (or even online at the same time as the show’s broadcast on television) additional content. Television shows like Scrubs and The Office offer additional programming online in both supplemental and original form. And the third type of television is exclusive web-based television. [I’ll be leaving hybrid shows like Tosh.0 for another discussion.] I’ve discussed (and created a course) based on this type of television. The web-television product of the independent is easily studied and in many cases, you can even contact the creator and ask them what their intentions were for monetizing their content. Figuring out how web-television is monetized within a bigger corporation is tougher to figure out and in many cases we are left to speculate on our own.

When I asked the class what they felt about Kanye’s outburst and greedy mic grab, more than half the students already felt the notion that it may have been staged. MTV stage an event? What would give anyone that idea? Maybe we should ask Eminem. Remember, this is a channel that perfected the “Scripted Reality” show. What was different about the West/Swift event on Sunday and Bruno’s butt in Eminem’s face from a few months ago was that Taylor Swift was most definitely not in on this event even if Kanye could have been. And no one is talking either way.

What becomes interesting is the forceful removal of the clip from ANY other outlet. If you want to see the video, you must see it at And you MUST endure an advertisement to see it. What we are potentially looking at is a potential future plan for MTV Networks: create “most talked-about moments” and restrict those “moments” to your site and add an unavoidable advertisement to the clip. The question is there to be asked. And I asked Shelly Palmer of MediaBytes who opened a dialogue about whether it matters if MTV keeps the clip off YouTube and owns the exclusive viewing. I asked him if my skeptical thought is plausible and his response was:

My sources at Viacom say their strategy worked perfectly. Traffic to is huge and bloggers are taking down dead links to YT content and linking to the clip on The question people are asking is, “Why doesn’t Viacom get it?” Wow, is that the wrong question. The question should be, “In 2009, can you make money with exclusive content that is highly sought after by conveniently packaging it with appropriate metadata and attempting to control access?” If the answer is yes, then Viacom really “gets it.” If the answer is no, well, you know the rest.

I think the answer is yes. I think Viacom does get it. MTV since its birth almost 30 years ago has always understood culture and audiences and formed how the audience receives television. This might just be their plan. We won’t really know until the next event when suspiciously another “talked-about moment” causes 300,000 tweets and Viacom funnels the viewers once again. If that happens, the next question will be: How many times can they pull that off without losing the trust of the audience?

I asked the students about the idea of staged moments and monetizing after the fact online and they gave me a very interesting response: As long as it is good and entertaining and enjoyable, they will still watch it no matter how unreal it may be.

That’s a strategy to explore.


Virginia Hefferman, writer of The Medium for the NY Times, wrote an article on television on the web. She ponders on what television will look like on the web and profiles Next New Networks‘ original content. At the end of last semester, one of my students approached me and asked about an interactive game on YouTube. It was a revenge video against Chris Brown where the user can interact with the metadata of the video to move the story (and score) along. It’s made by Barely Digital, a subset of Next New Networks, who pride themselves on “funny tech videos”. This type of production fills a void and completes the thought of how television will co-exist on the web.

Heffermann uses the term “mid-tail” which I had never heard before and I Googled it to find where the term comes from and it seems to be a pretty recent term that Hefferman did not coin, but she uses very well. The blog MDF(smash) [an amazing blog by the way] who is attached to Next New Networks explains that the term is pretty recent and that the new form of television won’t replace television, but gives an idea of what is alternative to re-purposed broadcast television on the web.

AdAge refers to the new term [June 8, 2009] as

” so-called midtail content, which fills a niche somewhere between studio-produced and user-generated fare, that’s exploded.”

Exploded is correct. In order to fill the need of the audience, independent content creators have been creating quality original content that is exclusive to the web. Since I started this research with We Need Girlfriends (a midtail production), thousands of “new media studio” creations have been uploaded.

This is definitely something to keep track of and watch. (Keep an eye on TubeMogul statistics as well.) In the next coming months I will hopefully have my pedagogical theory on web television production that I presented at BEA this year be published and professors across the country can guide their students to make successful New Media Studio productions.

While I was watching Bladerunner earlier tonight I started thinking about what the audience was thinking about the future in the late 70s and early 80s. While I thought about their visions of the dystopia, I thought about the story and realized that the story isn’t fictional but the settings are: new buildings everywhere, flying cars, replicants…

In a time where thoughts of the accelerated future were omnipresent, is seemed that this was a very possible future. This story COULD possibly occur.

Cut to reality. 10 years before Bladerunner takes place, the world has gone broke.  Instead of flying cars we have a neverending war and a former president who Seth Meyers said, “broke the world”.

The dystopian vision of the future of the film is not in OUR near future. We have our own dystopian present.

This of course brought me to the thought of the Internet’s visual content. Everyday, loads of new content is being created for the web. So much of this content is entertaining, laughable, dramatic and even truthful, but is any of it BELIEVABLE?

This new frontier needs a story that is Believable. A story that sets the landscape.

At some point there will be a Bladerunner or a Taxi or a Cheers.  Something believable to our time and present.

The new outlet will truly take hold. If done right, the “call to arms” for new content will set the standard for the content on the web. It will give the Streamys a guideline. It will give the burgeoning Academy a strong foothold.

Its coming soon. Will you be the one to produce it?

One of the biggest problems with web television is that no one has yet written the guide to how to make it work. That is what I am trying to do. We are presented with dozens, if not hundreds of different types of web shows and webisodes fictional and non-fiction. Although We Need Girlfriends is a successful model, Quarterlife was highly unsuccessful. So how does one figure it out?

The first thing to think about before even shooting is writing. How can YOU make your content hold up with the audience? For a small example, please read the article on the left called “The Sitcom Digresses” which is about how broadcast shows like 30 Rock and Family Guy have begun to realize the need for quick wit and attention grabbing writing styles. (And so has SNL, but they do have Andy Samberg and he wrote the first rules of web television, so that’s kinda cheating.)

When I pitched RTVF 65i, Television for the Web, I simply said this: “How often are you watching television and you think, ‘Nothing is on’? How often are you on the web and you think that nothing is on?” Think about that for a sec.

Broadcast TV has much more going for its form. You have about 30 secs to a minute to gain and KEEP an audiences attention. On the internet… you have anywhere between 7 and 11 seconds. (!) Why you ask? Well… because of the content creator’s worst enemy of course:



Also, shows can’t be as long either. Broadcast is used to a 30 minute (22 minutes) or an hour long show (44 minutes), but the web is free game! Though that doesn’t mean make epic 40 minute shows.. focus groups with college age students have shown that episodes ranging from 3 to 11 minutes are the most watchable. (This does not include the ultra successful Dr Horrible’s Sing-a-long Blog.)

So. These are thoughts that will come out of my head as we move forward with this research. There is a lot of thought going into this and I hope it helps not only the academy of television, the university’s that teach television and the content creators, but I hope it helps everyone looking to have their content seen by the world.

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